By Regis Sbudd J. Bates
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The light spot, which is produced when emitted particles excite the scintillator, can be used as an optical reference to localize the position of the exit aperture. Firstly, the nucleus of each cell is identified and located by a computer/microscope-based image analysis system, which detects the fluorescent staining pattern of the cells by UV light. Secondly, the dish is moved under computer control to the position where the first cell nucleus is positioned over a highly collimated particle beam.
4) 37 FUNDAMENTALS OF ION IMPLANTATION and Se (E1) = – 1 N ( dE dx ) e. 5) For a single incident ion the total energy loss per unit distance can be expressed as dE dE (– )n + (– )e = N [Sn (E1) + Se (E1)]. dx dx E1 is the energy of the incident ion at position x in the target, and thus – dE1 dx = N [Sn (E1) + Se (E1)]. 6) Substitution of Eq. 6) into Eq. 2) gives the total mean range Rt of the incident ion: dE1 1 0 Rt = – ³ , E N S n ( E1 ) + S e ( E1 ) or dE1 1 E Rt = . 4). The total range is Rt = l1 + l2 + … … = ¦l i , i and thus the projected range is Rp = l1cosT1 + l2cosT2 + … … = ¦l i cosTi.
In semiconductors and insulators, there are fewer free electrons and hence the secondary electron escape probability is greater. A rough or convoluted surface has a greater secondary electron emission yield than a smooth surface. Biological organisms have structurally complex surfaces and are electrically inert as well. Therefore secondary electron emission yields from biological organism surfaces are greater than from metallic or semiconductor surfaces when they are ion bombarded under similar implantation conditions.
Advanced Intelligent Networks by Regis Sbudd J. Bates