By Enes Kadic
Reviews and compares the foremost kinds of bioreactors, defines their execs and cons, and identifies learn wishes and figures of benefit that experience but to be addressed
- Describes universal modes of operation in bioreactors
- Covers the 3 universal bioreactor forms, together with stirred-tank bioreactors, bubble column bioreactors, and airlift bioreactors
- Details much less universal bioreactors kinds, together with fastened mattress bioreactors and novel bioreactor designs
- Discusses benefits and downsides of every bioreactor and gives a strategy for optimum bioreactor choice in response to present approach needs
- Reviews the issues of bioreactor choice globally whereas contemplating all bioreactor thoughts instead of targeting one particular bioreactor type
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Additional info for An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer
1997). , UL ∼ 1 cm∕s in air–water systems). When the wall shear term is negligible, Eq. 11) The gas holdup measurement based on Eq. 11) completely neglects the effects of wall shear stress and has been identified by Tang and Heindel (2006a) as Method II (???? II ). 26 EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES The wall shear term in Eq. 10) increases significantly with increasing superficial liquid (UL ) and gas (Ug ) velocities and can amount to ∼ 20% of the total gas holdup (Hills, 1976; Merchuk and Stein, 1981).
1997) and Boyer et al. (2002), and include changes in total bed expansion upon gassing, pressure drop measurements, dynamic gas disengagement (DGD), and tomographic techniques. 1 Bed Expansion. One of the simplest methods to measure global gas holdup, ????, is to measure the bed expansion upon gassing. 6) where H is the liquid height at a given gas flow rate and H0 corresponds to the initial liquid height. This assumes that the bulk liquid velocity is zero. The liquid expansion height is very easy to identify at low gas flow rates, but this identification is more challenging at high gas flow rates due to fluctuations at the free surface caused by bubble disengagement.
12), which is not the case for Eq. 10). Tang and Heindel (2006a) have shown that gas holdup in a cocurrent air–water–fiber bubble column was simple and accurate with Eq. 12), while error could be significant for selected operational conditions with Eq. 11). 3 Dynamic Gas Disengagement (DGD). 1 Sample data from a dynamic gas disengagement experiment (Krishna and Ellenberger, 1996). Grund, 1986; Sriram and Mann, 1977). As summarized by Boyer et al. (2002), DGD can be used to record global gas and solid holdup, as well as estimate the holdup make-up according to different bubble size classes.
An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer by Enes Kadic