By G. Hauke
This ebook provides the rules of fluid mechanics and shipping phenomena in a concise method. it truly is compatible as an advent to the topic because it comprises many examples, proposed difficulties and a bankruptcy for self-evaluation.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications)
6). 4 Surface Tension At interfaces between two substances, the inter-molecular forces at both sides diﬀer, appearing to be an additional force. 12) The surface tension depends on the pair of substances that form the interface and on the temperature. When the surface tension is positive, the molecules of each phase tend to be repelled back to their own phase. This is the case, for instance, of two inmiscible liquids. When the surface tension is negative, the molecules of both phases tend to mix, like two miscible liquids.
4 Surface Tension 43 Absolute and Gage Pressure The absolute pressure pabs represents the force per unit area exerted by the molecules against the walls. It is always positive and in the case of a gas, it corresponds to the thermodynamic pressure. 11) It can be positive or negative, its minimum value being −patm (see Fig. 6). 4 Surface Tension At interfaces between two substances, the inter-molecular forces at both sides diﬀer, appearing to be an additional force. 12) The surface tension depends on the pair of substances that form the interface and on the temperature.
3 Calculation of Streaklines To calculate the streaklines of a ﬂow ﬁeld, it is ﬁrst necessary to compute the trajectories. The process is very similar to the one presented above, diﬀering only in the way the boundary conditions are imposed. Assume that a tracer is injected into the ﬂow ﬁeld at the point (x0 , y0 ). Then, proceed in three steps: 1. Integrate the equation of motion. 2. Calculate the integration constants, such that at time ξ < t the ﬂuid particle was at (x0 , y0 ). Here ξ is the parameter that designates the particle, by the time it passed through the injection point.
An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications) by G. Hauke