By Michel Foucault
In France, a rustic that awards its intellectuals the prestige different nations supply their rock stars, Michel Foucault used to be a part of a glittering iteration of thinkers, one that additionally integrated Sartre, de Beauvoir and Deleuze. one of many nice highbrow heroes of the 20th century, Foucault used to be a guy whose ardour and cause have been on the carrier of approximately each revolutionary reason for his time. From legislation and order, to psychological well-being, to strength and data, he spearheaded public knowledge of the dynamics that carry us all in thrall to some strong ideologies and pursuits. Arguably his most interesting paintings, Archaeology of Knowledge is a difficult yet superbly lucrative advent to his principles.
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Any rational being who is aware of the moral law cannot fail to recognise it as an instruction to act (Walker 1998: 24). Because reason is a distinctive faculty of human intelligence, the moral law is not natural. Natural things obey the natural laws of physics, but the moral law operates in a space that is exempt from this kind of causal relation (Burnham 2000: 23). The moral law can only be followed where there is freedom, in the sense of the choice to do otherwise. Thus human beings are the only creatures that can act morally, precisely because they have autonomy of action (Carroll 1993: 129).
Once this problem began to be reﬂected upon, the role of philosophy was transformed. In articulating the relationship between the moral law and the laws of nature, Kant was providing an abstract conception of justice and governance that could be put into practice by state legislators. Kant’s arguments are concerned with the moral duty of treating other human beings as ends in themselves, rather than means, and showing an ‘active sympathy for their fate’ (Kant  1998: 457). Yet the implication was that if the moral law was obeyed, the social order would be maintained.
If in Renaissance thought phenomena had been networked to each other by their symbolic signiﬁcance, associations, mythological connotations and etymology, meaning was now increasingly identiﬁed as the content or product of the human mind, as we shall see below. In Britain, rationalism and empiricism provided the intellectual milieu in which the Royal Society was formed, following the restoration of the monarchy, after the civil wars. That Charles II was favourable towards science was highly fortunate for the founders of the Society, for experimental science had been promoted by Puritan elements during the period of the Commonwealth.
Archaeology of Knowledge (Routledge Classics) by Michel Foucault